[Feature]Korean Immigrants In America⑨ > 특집

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[Feature]Korean Immigrants In America⑨

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작성자 minjok 작성일02-01-18 00:00 조회3,286회 댓글0건



sunwoohakwon.jpgAccording to our taped interviews, we found that two strong factions were evident. The Korean National Association with the Korean Patriotic Women’s Association and the Young Korean Academy (Hungsa-dan) organized by Mr. Ahn Chang-ho as one group and Dongji-hoe which was organized by Dr. Syngman Rhee as another. These two groups, although they were primarily active in America, associated closely with the factions in China following the failure of the patriotic movement in 1919. There were three known factions among the leaders of the Korean Provisional Government in Shanghai. The against the Japanese in and out of Korea. General Lee carried prestige military group which was led by General Lee Tong-whi advocated military actions among the Koreans in Manchuria and Siberia and was able to mobilize and train the young Koreans to sabotage and to assassinate the high Japanese officials in Korea. His idea was to disrupt the Japanese policy in Korea. By doing that, they expected to inspire the Koreans to fight against the Japanese forces in Korea.

Among the Korean immigrants in America, too, there was a strong support for military training to fight against Japan. The most outstanding example of the military undertaking was the case of a Korean Youth Military Academy in Hastings, Nebraska. Twenty-seven Koreans were receiving military training by Mr. Park Yong-man. The news of the military training had spread among the Koreans, and a few other training centers were set up in Claremont and Lompoc in California; Kansas City, Kansas; and Superior, Wyoming. There were about 20 cadets at each of these centers except at Hastings.

Mr. Park Yong-man moved to Hawaii and organized a 311 man force as the Korean National Brigade on August 29, 1914 while 600 people attended the ceremony to witness the event.

In addition to the Army training camps, an aviation center was established at Willows, California and trained 19 pilots in two years with two airplanes which had been donated by Mr. Kim Chong-lim. Mr. Kim was a Korean rice farmer and had a reputation of a rice king at Willows. Mr. Kim was a humble and honest man. When we asked about his venture in those days, he simply smiled without a comment. Mr. Kim and Mr. Tan Sunoo (the author’s grandfather) were partners in manufacturing of soysauce during World War II abut the business was not very successful at that time.

During World War II, there were several Korean leaders who advocated the need of military participation with the Allied forces in order to convince the leaders of the Allies that Korea was ready for independence. Such views were more acute among the Korean leaders after the Cairo Declaration in October, 1943 by the leaders of the Allied Powers prosecuting the war against Japan. They declared that “in due course Korea shall become free and independent.”

To Aid Korean Volunteers in China was organized by the Korean residents in Los Angeles in order to support the Korean military forces which were actually engaged in war against the Japanese invading forces in China. Their monthly meetings were held in a rented old house on West Jefferson Blvd. near Normandie in Los Angeles, and an average of 50 old and young people attended.

Ahn Suk-jung, an almost to 70 year old patriot, was the chairman of the monthly meetings. Other elders were Song Hung-joo, Lim Sung-taek, Lim Joon-ki, and Kwak Lim-dae. The leaders behind the scene of the group, however, were Reverend Lee Sa-min and Mr. Kimm Kang who belonged to the left wing faction of the KNA and Young Korean Academy. Rev. Lee was a close friend of Mr. Ahn Chang-ho in Korea and had arrived in Los Angeles in 1937.

Rev. Lee and Kimm Kang organized a core group to run this action oriented association. Members of this core group were Pyun Joon-ho, Lee Chul, Lee Chang-hei, Choy Bong-yun, Sunoo Hakwon in addition to these two leaders. Rev. Lee made a contact with Dr. Kim Kieu-sick beside Kim Won-bong (Yaksan), the leader of the Korean volunteers in China. The association raised funds to support the Korean volunteer corp, rather than supporting the Korean Independence Army in Chungking, wartime capital of China, since the Chungking group was not engaged in actual battle against the Japanese armed forces at that time. Thus, the Korean community in America supported two different military groups in China.

Meanwhile, the members of the core group which supported the Korean volunteers Corp in China had joined the United States Army (OSS) voluntarily because they believed in military action, and only the military involvement of the Korean nationals could prove to the Allied Powers their seriousness of national liberation. For instance, the Allied Powers had already promised the independence of Yugoslavia and Tito as their leader. So, when the Office of Strategic Service came to recruit them, they were more than willing to volunteer to serve in the U.S. Army. Some of them were sent to China after intensive training while some others had no opportunity to serve at the front line.

There were numerous Korean immigrants, not counting those American born Koreans who volunteered to the United States Armed Forces in addition to the members of the core group mentioned above. But none of them were organized as was the core group which was associated with the active group in China engaged in the war against the Japanese in the Far East at that time.

The second group was known as a cultural group which was initiated by Mr. Ahn Chang-ho. Mr. Ahn was probably the best known Korean patriot in modern times and emphasized that the Korean mass must be educated through the newspapers and the magazines. Mr. Ahn believed that the means and the spirit of national revolution must be taught to the people, and must wait for proper opportunity to liberate Korea. In other words, he believed that the mass were not ready for revolutionary action and that the time was not ripe for a Korean national revolution. Since Mr. Ahn believed in the cultural movement, he organized a cultural group, Hungsa-dan or the Young Korean Academy in America as well as in Korea. The purpose of this organization was to train young people for future leadership, to advocate business through which they hoped to bring about a high living standard, and to advocate the Korean national spirit against the Japanese imperialism. Thus, this organization worked mainly among the Christians, particularly in the Protestant circles.
For instance, Reverend Whang Sa-sun who served nearly twenty years in the San Francisco Korean Methodist Church after he arrived from Korea in 1913 told his granddaughter that he joined and became an active member of the Korean National Association and Hungsa-dan.

What did the KNA and the Young Korean Academy do? Rev. Whang said:
Before any consulate general, the KNA took over and took care of the Korean needs, protected the Koreans in America... It also helped Koreans find jobs, and guided their businesses, something like that. It was also educational.

Mr. Ahn who was a recognized leader of these two organizations worked with Korean people on the mainland, the Hawaiian Islands, and also travelled to Mexico where he visited Korean labor camps. He visited and looked after their living conditions and to see if they were employed. Was the KNA a political organization? To this question, Rev. Whang replied that it was not; it was mainly to help Koreans in America.

His granddaughter, Gail, asked why the American government would not help the Korean immigrants who were in America then. At that time, referring to 1920’s and 1930’s, did you think if you had a college education, you’d have a job? Asked Gail.

Rev. Whang, now 85 years old when interviewed, answered quietly “No, not at that time. Not even much later days when my son, Paul, graduated from San Francisco State College (University).” Gail asked him again:
Q. You felt very bad that my father couldn’t get a job after he graduated from the college?

A. Very bad.

Q. Was there anything you could do about it?

A. At that time, I had a small business--a cleaning and tailor shop. Your father helped me there.

Q. Why couldn’t they get a job?

A. American people didn’t want the Orientals for the job. Suppose your father wanted a city job, he would not be permitted to have it. But if it were housework or labor, he would be permitted to work. The higher position, no.

Q. How come?

A. I guess they didn’t like Oriental people.

Q. What did the Young Korean Academy do?

A. Mostly educational work. They proposed that every member take in physical culture, literature, and at the same time, friendship culture.
Every member was to read at least 2-3 pages every day, and every morning when you got up, exercise. I did this. Had to read outside the Bible. We had to be trustworthy and honest.

Rev. Whang was well educated in traditional Confucian studies as well as modern Christian education. He spent about 8 years studying old Confucian classics before he attended high school and college in Pyong-yang. Then he became a high school teacher before he came to America. He received some theological training at the Pacific School of Religion in Berkeley before he became a Methodist preacher. He had to maintain a small cleaning shop in order to supplement his income. He commented that the KNA helped him a great deal beside his own brother, Reverend Whang Sa-yong.

The KNA was very political although its main concern was to help other Korean immigrants in early days. Mr. Kim Won-yong who had devoted most of his adult life to serving the Korean community through the KNA did testify to that fact. Mr. Kim who arrived in America in 1917, worked at a steel mill in Pueblo, Colorado; in Akron, Ohio where he made rubber boots; a shipping clerk at the U.S. Steel Mill in Pennsylvania; as well as a cafeteria manager at the Jackson Cafeteria in Chicago.

The Korean National Association of North America was organized on February 1, 1909 in San Francisco. It was the successor through consolidation of the all Korean organizations in the United States. At the time of its birth, the KNA had 38 local chapters with 850 members.

According to several taped interviews, the KNA had gained its nationwide recognition when an incident occurred in the Hemet areas of Riverside County, California on June 27, 1913. The story was that 11 Koreans went to pick apricots in the Hemet area, and were chased out by the white residents of the town. The Japanese consul had offered to assist the Korean laborers when they heard of the discriminatory incident, the Koreans rejected such help claiming that they are not the citizens of Japan. Instead, the KNA represented the Korean apricot pickers then settled the matter with the residents of the town. With the success of negotiation, the KNA requested of the Department of State in Washington that the U.S. government distinguish between Koreans and Japanese, and further asked that they deal with the KNA in matters concerning Koreans in the United States. Secretary William Jennings Bryan a storical event for the Koreans in America and every Korean we interviewed remembered to tell us the story. Thus the KNA was well received in the Korean community. A sister group of the KNA was also organized in Hawaii. The KNA of Hawaii had a much larger membership than the KNA in mainland with 2,351 members and 73 local chapters.

Mr. Kim said that the KNA of Hawaii had grown to self-rule with policing powers within its organization. Small disputes among Koreans were settled by the police committee and the local court relied on the rulings of the association.

Such well organized pioneer groups got into trouble when the association invited Park Yong-man and Syngman Rhee to Hawaii as their leaders. The association needed professional management since it had grown so much in such a short time. The KNA of Hawaii began to publish The Korean National Herald (Kukmin-bo) and the KNA in mainland began to publish the New Korea (Sinhan Minbo) and both needed trained editors.

Syngman Rhee was to assist Park Yong-man. The association had invited Rhee, on Park’s recommendation, to Hawaii. When Rhee came to Hawaii in February, 1913, he declined to work as an assistant to Park and started to publish his own monthly magazine--Pacific Magazine. By 1915, Rhee was able to gather his own force to take over the leadership of the Association. This was the beginning of a factional strife between the original leadership of the KNA and the Rhee group which eventually emerged as Dongji-hoe in 1921 in Hawaii.

Park Yong-man, after losing his leadership to Rhee, organized the Korean Independence League (Tokrip-dan) in March, 1919 with a 350 membership in Hawaii. The League started to publish a weekly paper--The Pacific Times (Taepyongyang Sisa), and continued more than seven years. Meanwhile, Park Yong-man whose interest was in military action, left Hawaii for China in May, 1919 to observe the general condition of the Korean revolutionary movement there. Park came back to Hawaii after a long absence, in July, 1925 and reported to his group on his trip to China. Park had proposed following two major policies to the League:

1. The actual campaign of the independence movement shall be entrusted to the Korean residents in the Far East, and the Korean residents in Hawaii shall provide financial support to the movement and promote education for children.

2. the Korean Independence League shall purchase a large piece of virgin land in China, and engage in a land development enterprise as the financial foundation of Korean military bases in the Far East. The first installment of capital shall be $20,000, which shall be met by the cash balance of the former Korean National Brigade of Hawaii. After this, the members of the League shall contribute $200 a year.

The members of the League had endorsed the proposals by their leader.
With such assurance, Park went back to China for the establishment of
the Land Development Company there. None of the League’s plan was
realized due to Park’s death in China. The League then merged with the KNA of Hawaii.

According to Mr. Kim Won-yong’s interview story, which he claimed that the first time the details had ever revealed that Dr. Rhee was responsible for the factional strife in Hawaii and elsewhere. Not only Park Yong-man but many other Korean leaders involved with ugly factional strifes which Mr. Kim had hesitated to talk about. In Hawaii, Dr. Rhee used to hire young kids to way-lay Mr. Kim. The situation became so bad, the police department in Honolulu gave Mr. Kim permission to carry a gun to protect himself. The police used to patrol every 15 minutes around the neighborhood where Mr. Kim and the other leaders of the KNA lived.

Mr. Kim told of one incident when Dr. Rhee had challenged him with brute force and violence in Honolulu. It happened in 1929 when the Kwangju Student Affair had occurred in Korea. It was an anti-Japanese incident, and the Koreans needed to get together in order to support the patriotic student movement in Kwangju. Dr. Rhee who was not able to unite the Korean community for the purpose had asked Mr. Kim to do the job. Mr. Kim was in the mainland at that time and had to travel to Hawaii. He said:

“I don’t think of myself. I was willing to meet anyone and anywhere if it means to help my people and my country. I will go to New York, Chicago, or anywhere. This was my objective.

Q. Where was the meeting called?

A. Dr. Rhee said, ‘Let’s not decide on an exact location yet. That can come later...in this way, it may be easier to organize.’ That meant Rhee himself wanted to be the central figure. I said, ‘alright, we do that’. So a meeting was called and after two days a delegate chosen. I was chosen.

Q. So did you go to Hawaii?

A. Yes. June, 1929. Rhee said to me, ‘look here, Mr. Kim, if you come to Hawaii representing the Korean groups in the mainland for the purpose of uniting Koreans in Hawaii, it puts me in an awkward position, don’t you think?’... ‘You must save my face.’ I agreed with him. Rhee proposed that I not be called a representative from the States. ‘Let’s say you are representing Dongji-hoe in Hawaii and you come to the meeting with that status.’ My explanation was that ‘I cannot represent Dongji-hoe in Hawaii because to do so he must be one of them with like belief.’ I was not.

The meeting was called on June 16, 1929. There was some confusion from the beginning. They wanted Mr. Kim to be a member of the committee since he was a representative from the mainland. They asked him and provided him with the all power to handle the meeting. The meetings dragged on for two and a half months. Dr. Rhee evidently believed that if Mr. Kim was in a position to control the situation at the meetings, Kim would support Rhee’s leadership for all the Korean groups. That did not happen. Mr. Kim behaved just as a Korean patriot ought to behave and Dr. Rhee was pleased by it. Mr. Kim recalled: “Syngman Rhee started his hassle and I couldn’t stand it. He called the conference to avoid partisanship but he again created divisiveness. Why always him? I don’t know. Rhee handed out clubs to the school boys.”

They were actually after Kim. It was a gangsterism as Mrs. Kim described the situation. Such partisan war was not limited to Hawaii but extended to the U.S. mainland wherever the Korean community existed.

Q. What kind of charges did Rhee bring against you at the court?

A. It started with some money. Dongji-hoe had a little money, $50.00 or something. They say that I took the money. Rhee was supposed to guarantee trip back to the mainland but they didn’t. Any way, they started with $50.00.
I was to pay my own way from San Francisco to Honolulu. I went to see your father, Mr. Shinn Han, and said, ‘Syngman Rhee is asking me to come to Hawaii.’ Mr. Shinn said, ‘Go by all means. Don’t worry about your fare. I will take care of it.’ I asked him again that in case I go to Hawaii, and have problem returning, I hope you can help me. That’s why I’ve come to see you, Mr. Shinn. I got his assurance and so I left for Hawaii. Now Dr. Rhee accuses me of embezzlement. I was treasurer of the central committee.

Q. How much money you suppose to have in the treasury?

A. $42.53 was the amount.

Q. What happened?

A. They took me to court because I was going to use that money to return to the mainland as Dr. Rhee promised.

Q. For that small amount?

A. Yes. He intended to have revenge. It was not the amount of money. Rhee accused me of taking public funds. After this he went around and got all the school kids to gang up after me.

Q. What was the result?

A. Court dismissed the case. For over two weeks there was gangster-like action on me.

Q. This was disgraceful to the Korean community?

A. Yes. Sure indeed it was. The stories made headline in the papers including the New Korea in San Francisco. I cannot tell all the details. This which I was suppressed within me all these years. Now I cannot speak. I get exhausted after two words.

Mr. Kim was seriously ill before our interview, had a relapse then died on February 9, 1976 in Los Angeles. He was a patriot who had devoted his entire adult life to the betterment of the entire Korean community.

The Third group was known as the diplomacy group under Dr. Syngman Rhee because Dr. Rhee advocated that Korean independence could be achieved through the means of the diplomacy which he was to lead. Dr. Rhee, indeed, devoted most of his time in the field of diplomatic relations for Korean independence until he became the first president of the Republic of Korea. Staying in the field of diplomacy did pay off for his career if not for the nation. Dr. Rhee had received an American education; holding a master’s degree from Harvard, a Ph.D. from Princeton, majoring in Political Science under Woodrow Wilson. With such unique educational background, Dr. Rhee became a dictator in South Korea under the auspices of the United States and her allies.

Sir Winston Churchill, the wartime Prime Minister of England, interestingly described Dr. Syngman Rhee as “a self-constituted dictator.” Dr. Rhee’s dictatorial career was initiated a long time before in the United States with the political club known as Dongji-hoe. Dongji-hoe (The Comrade Society) first started in 1922 in Dinuba, California. The main purpose of the organization was, unlike the KNA, getting back Korea’s independence.

Dr. Rhee appeared to be a champion of the people. He always said that he defended the “will of the people” against the legislators when he was the President of the Republic of Korea. In a parliamentary government system, if the legislators do not represent the people, where do we find the will of the people? Dr. Rhee contended that “the real struggle for power is between the entire nation and the ‘selfish minorities’ of Assemblymen.” And he insisted that “there is no one more anxious than I am to see this country firmly established as a truly independent and a democratic state. This has been the sole objective of my life-long struggle.” He might have been sincere as he expressed such sentiments, but the words were meaningless when he acted contrary to them. He had cast aside the Constitution which he himself had helped write, had by-passed the law and set himself up as the sole interpreter of what he thought was best for Korea. He was willing to rip apart the Constitution on the basis of personal gains in the midst of struggle for political power.

Dr. Rhee was in prison for his anti-government activities in his youthful days and suffered in prison from both the Royal Koreans and the Japanese militarists. They gave him the “water torture” until he was driven to frenzy and madness. The jailers put his fingers between steel rollers and smashed them. He was released from prison in a general amnesty in 1904 as the Russo-Japanese War was beginning--the main issue of that was the domination of Korea. He fled to the United States where he spent his long exile until 1945 when a U.S. Army plane brought him to Seoul in mid-October. He had been introduced before the Korean people by Lieutenant General John R. Hodge, then the commander of the U.S. 8th Army which occupied South Korea. His 1948 presidential inaugural speech was packed with fine Jeffersonian phrases and his American friends were pleased. His action, however, proved an embarrassment to the democratic people. He adopted a pattern of government that had been consistently dictatorial. Few men in Korea had been safe from the coercion of Rhee’s large police force.

According to our taped interviews, not all of his early followers left him after close relationship with him. Numerous important associates of Dr. Rhee including Kim Hyung-soon, Kim Won-yong, Kim Ho left him with disappointment and became arch-enemies but large numbers of the members of Dongji-hoe remained as his loyal followers. Mr. Lee Pom-young is one of them. Mr. and Mrs. Lee told us how they worked hard to support Dr. Rhee during 1930’s in the United States.

Representing Dongji-hoe, they went around to collect money and get donations for Dr. Rhee who lived in Washington, D.C. at that time. Dongji-hoe pledged $500.00 a month to support Dr. Rhee in Washington. They travelled around from community to community to collect funds. Mrs. Lee commented: “I was most impressed by the rural people. When I was in Dinuba and Lodi region I met a Mr. Choi Yak-sun. I will never forget him. He said, ‘Here is $300.00, put me down for $600.00.’”

Mrs. Lee told us several similar stories of their efforts in fund raising for Dr. Rhee. All of them were, of course, poor farmers and lived in poor and dingy rooms. The next time they heard from Dr. Rhee was when he needed $10,000.00. When Mr. Lee reported to Dongji-hoe about the big sum of cash, the members had sold their cars and other valuable items and raised the $10,000.00 for Dr. Rhee. Mrs. Lee commented:

I was spending full time working for Dr. Rhee and the movement. I had no time to earn for myself. The group decided to pay me $200.00 a month for my expenses. This I later refused as I didn’t want them to think I was taking advantage of them. Well, I know that Dr. Rhee might not have been able to continue if it had been for us, especially the people in Hawaii.

Dr. Rhee was well known for his political style; namely, that he awarded his loyal followers and punished his political enemies before and after he became the President of the Republic of Korea. For instance, Mr. Lee Pom-young was invited to Korea in 1955 during the presidency of Dr. Rhee and was well entertained. Dr. Rhee sent Mr. Lee to Southeast Asia as a representative of the Korean government. Mr. Lee received a plaque from Thai government during his visit there. He also met President Chang Kai-shek as a personal envoy of Dr. Rhee. Mr. Lee recalled: “I was always placed in the highest seat of honor and others were not. I really enjoyed myself.”

Another person who had been a loyal follower of Dr. Rhee among the interviewees is Mr. Leo Song. During our long interview, Mr. Song has revealed to us his feeling toward Mr. Ahn and the KNA as well as his loyalty toward Dongji-hoe.

Mr. Song met Mr. Ahn when he arrived in San Francisco as a young immigrant but he did not join either the KNA or YKA as most of his friends did at that time. Mr. Song accused Mr. Ahn as being too provincial, meaning that Ahn favored northerners. Not many people would accept such an accusation because Ahn was trying to overcome such an ill trait of the Korean people. Mr. Song said:
He (Ahn) should have associated with those from Cholla province or anywhere else, it seems he left the three of us out. ...I don’t care for that kind of partisan attitude.

Mr. Song never joined the Ahn group, but joined the Rhee group and has been a leader of the group for a long time. He revealed his strong feeling about Dongji-hoe when he talked about his experience in the Korean Presbyterian Church in Los Angeles. Mr. Song recalled:

At this time, Rev. Kim Joong-soo arrived. His home was Kunsan, Cholla province, and was my classmate. Rhee Soong-gi, Sammy’s father, Chun Young-taik, etc. Quite a number... We thought since Rev. Kim came as an ordained minister, and this Cho Sung-whan just taught Bible, and we wanted to run a good church, let’s hold him, and have him as our minister. Several of us felt this was a good idea. Cho thought differently. He thought we were ganging up on him and wanted to oust him.

In spite of Mr. Song’s desire to have an ordained minister as a new preacher of the church, he had no intention of ousting Mr. Cho who was not an ordained minister. The church had been split due to Mr. Song and his friends of Dongji-hoe at that time. Furthermore, Rev. Kim Joong-soo did not stay with Mr. Song’s group long. Now there were three churches: one church by Rev. Kim, and the other church by Mr. Song and other Dongji-hoe members established. Dongji-hoe group set up a church patterned after the Korean Christian Church of Honolulu which was established by Dr. Rhee. Dongji-hoe had their building on 36th street in Los Angeles. Rev. Sohn became their minister.

Another admirer of Dr. Rhee was Mr. Kim Young-chul in Denver, Colorado. Mr. Kim left Korea in 1914 for Germany but landed in Poland, then arrived in America. He lived most of his adult life in Denver and was a lively 76 year old man in July, 1976 when we interviewed him. One of the rare stories we heard from him was about international espionage which he claimed to have been a part of that team. He also brought Dr. Rhee into the picture. Mr. Kim first met Syngman Rhee in Honolulu on his way to the mainland. After that first meeting, when Dr. Rhee made cross country trips he always stopped in Denver to see him and shared information which Mr. Kim kept confidential. What sort of information? Naturally was asked him. Mr. Kim said:

Such advance information as that of the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor and their plan to bomb Panama Canal (which didn’t take place). He doesn’t talk on a guess. His greatest difficulty was to prove to the American public his advance information before it happened.

How can it be proved before it comes? Mr. Kim said that Dr. Rhee gave the information to a news commentator, Drew Pearson. They were good friends. One day, Drew Pearson and other newsmen were playing indoor cricket when someone called for Pearson to hear the radio announcement of the “Pearl Harbor bombing.” The others all wanted to hear the news but Dr. Rhee pretended that he heard nothing and that it was none of his concern. He continued playing alone and made a dry remark, “Best part of this game is that it gives a man such relaxation. To think better and to see better. Cordell Hull (then, Secretary of State) should take up this game.” Dr. Rhee had warned Secretary Hull many times. But the American Secretary never paid any attention to Dr. Rhee according to Mr. Kim. He said that Drew Pearson wrote that story in his famous “Washington Merry Go-Round” column.

Dr. Rhee was able to convince his followers in the rural community in those early days as Mrs. Lee told us in her interview but he failed to convince the Korean people in Korea. His speeches were packed with democratic phrases but his action betrayed his words. His government was unable to maintain itself even with a 50,000 member police force. The regime could not free itself from the common practices of graft and bribery which he had used in his early days in Hawaii. Dr. Rhee, like King George III who refused to believe the reports from Boston, had not believed the news of the student revolution. It was, however, too late to take the necessary action when he finally realized that the student revolution was real and discontented citizens were at his doorstep. He was no longer able to control the situation and he again left Korea for Hawaii for his remainder of life. Announced at a news conference that Koreans were not Japanese and the KNA would not allow any intervention by the Japanese government.
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