The unidentified ballistic missile was launched from the district of Sunan in the North Korean capital of Pyongyang, home to the country's main airport, the South Korean military said.
The missile flew about 3,700 kilometers (2,300 miles) and reached an altitude of 770 kilometers (480) miles. It landed in the Pacific Ocean, South Korea said.
The US Pacific Command said its initial assessment indicated that North Korea had fired an intermediate-range ballistic missile. There were conflicting reports from Japan on the type of missile fired, though the government stressed that analysis was ongoing.
A government warning, known as the J-Alert, said that "a missile" had passed over Hokkaido, northern Japan, before landing in the Pacific, NHK reported. "The government is advising people to stay away from anything that could be missile debris," the broadcaster said.
Japan's Coast Guard said no damage has been reported by the fallen object.
Speaking to reporters Friday, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said the launch was "totally unacceptable" and went against "the international community's strong, united will for a peaceful solution."
The international community needs to unite and send clear message after North Korea's dangerous provocation," he said. "We must let North Korea understand there is no bright future for North Korea if it continues in this way."
He said the Japanese government tracked the launch of the missile and "took all possible measures."
South Korean President Moon Jae-in held a National Security meeting following the launch, according to an official at his office.
North Korea's last missile test, on August 29, was also fired from near the Pyongyang airport and overflew northern Japan.
US President Donald Trump has been briefed on the launch. When asked by a pool reporter about the launch Thursday evening Washington time at a dinner reception, Trump did not comment.
In a statement, US Secretary of State Rex Tillerson said the missile test was the second time the people of Japan "have been directly threatened in recent weeks."
"These continued provocations only deepen North Korea's diplomatic and economic isolation," Tillerson said.
"United Nations Security Council resolutions, including the most recent unanimous sanctions resolution, represent the floor, not the ceiling, of the actions we should take. We call on all nations to take new measures against the Kim regime."
He singled out Chinese oil supplies and Russia's use of North Korean migrant workers
as two areas in which the two countries could take "direct action" against North Korea.
Japan and the US have requested the UN Security Council hold "urgent consultations" at 3 p.m. ET Friday, according to the Ethiopian Mission to the UN. Ethiopian Ambassador Tekeda Alemu is the current UN Security Council president.
First launch since nuclear test
The launch came just hours after the rogue nation responded to the United Nations Security Council's unanimous approval of additional sanctions
by threatening to "sink" Japan and reduce the US mainland into "ash and darkness."
Those sanctions were prompted by North Korea's sixth nuclear test that occurred on September 3,
which Pyongyang said was a successful test of a hydrogen bomb.
That explosion created a magnitude-6.3 tremor, making it the most powerful weapon Pyongyang has ever tested.
The nuclear test prompted discussions inside South Korea about the the redeployment of US tactical nuclear weapons in the country, an idea that the majority of the country's citizens approve of, according to recent polls.
But on Thursday, South Korean President Moon Jae-in dismissed the possibility, warning it could "lead to a nuclear arms race in northeast Asia."
"We need to develop our military capabilities in the face of North Korea's nuclear advancement," he told CNN in his first televised interview since the nuclear test. "I do not agree that South Korea needs to develop our own nuclear weapons or relocate tactical nuclear weapons in the face of North Korea's nuclear threat. To respond to North Korea by having our own nuclear weapons will not maintain peace on the Korean Peninsula and could lead to a nuclear arms race in northeast Asia."
South Korea has been conducting its own military drills since the September 3 nuclear test. As the missile was launched Friday, the South Korean military was carrying out its own live-fire drill that involved launching a ballistic missile.
A rapid pace
2017 has been a year of rapid progress for North Korea's missile program.
Less than six years into his reign, Kim Jong Un has tested more missiles than his father and grandfather combined. And this year has been no exception.
Prior to its most recent launch, the country has fired 21 missiles during 14 tests since February, further perfecting its technology with each launch.
There's also a political aspect to the tests, analysts say.
"This new missile test ... is both a reaction to the stringent UN sanctions of Monday evening and a wake-up call about the limits of sanctions and military threats as a way to change North Korea's behavior," said George A Lopez, a former member of the UN Security Council panel of experts for sanctions on North Korea.
He said Trump should use his speech to the UN General Assembly next week to "demonstrate US leadership in loyalty to all allies in the region and state our commitment to developing new and vibrant security guarantees for all states, including (North Korea), that are not based on the threat or use of nuclear weapons."
Moon's strategy toward North Korea has drawn the wrath of US President Donald Trump, who accused the South Koreans of "appeasement" of their northern neighbors following the nuclear test.
The White House has been pursuing a strategy of what it calls "peaceful pressure" in dealing with North Korea -- trying to build a global coalition to squeeze North Korea's revenue and isolate it diplomatically so it will eventually put its missiles on the negotiating table.
China has been key to that strategy, as Beijing accounts for nearly 90% of all of North Korea's imports, according to recent data from the United Nations.
Hours before the launch, Trump touted his relationship with Chinese President Xi Jinping and their collaboration in addressing North Korea's rapidly escalating missile and nuclear programs.
"We have a very good relationship with China and with the President of China. We are working on different things," Trump said. "I can't tell you, obviously, what I'm working on. But believe me, the people of this country will be very, very safe."
"I think that a lot of effort is being put into this," he added.